A headache is pain in the head or upper neck. The two major types of headaches are primary headaches, which are not associated with a medical condition or disease, and secondary headaches, which are caused by an injury or underlying illness, such as a concussion, bleeding in the brain, an infection or a brain tumor. Primary headaches include tension, migraine and cluster headaches.
Symptoms of a tension headache include pressure and a band-like tightness that begins in the back of the head and upper neck, and gradually encircles the head.
Cluster headaches are headaches that occur in groups, or clusters, over a period of several weeks or months separated by headache-free periods of months or years. During the headache period, the cluster headache sufferer experiences several episodes of pain during the day, each of which lasts 30 to 90 minutes. These attacks, which often occur at the same time of day, include sharp, penetrating pain around or behind one eye, watering of the eye and a stuffy nose.
Migraine headaches cause intense, throbbing pain, often on one side of the head. Nausea, vomiting and sensitivity to light, sound and exertion often accompany migraines, which can last several hours or up to three days. Some migraine sufferers experience a visual disturbance called an aura prior to the onset of the migraine. Auras are flashing lights, wavy lines, blurry vision or blind spots.
Most headaches are not indicative of a serious medical problem. Some people have occasional headaches that resolve quickly, while others experience frequent and debilitating pain. You should seek medical attention if your headache:
Is severe. If you believe it is your "worst headache ever," seek emergency medical care.
Is different from your usual headaches in terms of its location, severity or accompanying symptoms, such as numbness or vision loss
Starts suddenly, or is aggravated by exertion
Causes pain significant enough to wake you from sleep
Does not respond to treatment, and instead worsens over time
Vertigo is a sensation of spinning dizziness. It is not, as many people maintain, a fear of heights. It is often associated with looking down from a great height but can refer to any temporary or ongoing spells of dizziness caused by problems in the inner ear or brain.
A person with vertigo will have a sense that their head, or their surrounding environment, is moving or spinning. Vertigo can be a symptom of other conditions, and it can also have its own set of related symptoms.
Balance problems and lightheadedness
A sense of motion sickness
Nausea and vomiting
A feeling of fullness in the ear
Epilepsy surgery is a procedure that removes or alters an area of your brain where seizures originate. Epilepsy surgery is most effective when seizures always originate in a single location in the brain. Epilepsy surgery is not the first line of treatment but is considered when at least two anti-seizure medications have failed to control seizures.
A number of pre-surgical assessments are necessary to determine whether you're eligible for epilepsy surgery and how the procedure is performed.
Epilepsy can vary greatly from one person to another. Numerous types of surgery are available to treat it including:
Multiple subpial transection
Dementia isn't a specific disease. Instead, dementia describes a group of symptoms affecting memory, thinking and social abilities severely enough to interfere with daily functioning.
Though dementia generally involves memory loss, memory loss has different causes. So memory loss alone doesn't mean you have dementia.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of a progressive dementia in older adults, but there are a number of causes of dementia. Depending on the cause, some dementia symptoms can be reversed.
While symptoms of dementia can vary greatly, at least two of the following core mental functions must be significantly impaired to be considered dementia:
Communication and language
Ability to focus and pay attention
Reasoning and judgment